Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

Virology is one of the rapidly emerging fields of biotechnology and microbiology which deals with the study of viruses and viral infections. Viruses are small microscopic particles that are incapable of reproducing on their own and depend on the host for their very survival. They are responsible for a variety of infections and diseases. Some of the viral infections are deadly and life threatening. The branches in virology are Molecular virology, Tumour virology, Clinical virology, Food and Agricultural virology, Veterinary virology, Neuro virology

  • Track 1-1Viruses and their Importance
  • Track 1-2Virus Structure
  • Track 1-3Branches of Virology
  • Track 1-4Viral Genetic Material

Pathogenesis is a process by which an infection leads to a disease. Viral pathogenesis is the process of transmission of viral infection. Viruses cause disease when they breach the host's primary physical and natural protective barriers; evade local, tissue, and immune defenses; spread in the body; and destroy cells either directly or via bystander immune and inflammatory responses

  • Track 2-1Stages of Viral Transmission
  • Track 2-2Virulence and Cytopathogenicity
  • Track 2-3Tropism
  • Track 2-4Patterns of Viral Infection

Viral infections are the most common ailment in human beings. There are different types of viral infections but the main symptoms of most of the viral infections are the same. These include fever, headache, nausea, fatigue, diarrhoea, sore throat, coughing. Viral infections may spread in many ways. Some people may get a viral infection by swallowing or inhaling virus, by being bitten by insects, through sexual contact or through transfusion of contaminated blood

  • Track 3-1Respiratory Viral Infections
  • Track 3-2Skin Infections
  • Track 3-3Eye Infections
  • Track 3-4Vectorborne Viral Infections
  • Track 3-5Foodborne and Waterborne Viral Infections
  • Track 3-6Sexually Transmitted Viral Infections

Viral isolation is the most important step in the diagnosis of infection. Usually the virus is isolated from the blood, serum and fluid samples collected from the infected patients. Most of the viruses have RNA as the genetic material. Hence several serological methods have been identified for the purification of RNA from the sample and their cultivation.

  • Track 4-1Cultivation of Viruses
  • Track 4-2Electrophoretic Technique
  • Track 4-3Infectivity Assays
  • Track 4-4Serological methods in Virology
  • Track 4-5Diagnostic Virology
  • Track 4-6Methods in RNA Isolation

Viruses are classified based on their morphology, chemical composition and mode of replication. Viruses that infect humans are currently grouped under 21 families. Two main schemes are used for the classification of viruses the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) system and Baltimore classification system. Based on which viruses are placed under 7 groups. Aside from physical data, genome structure and mode of replication are criteria applied in the classification and nomenclature of viruses, including the chemical composition and configuration of the nucleic acid, whether the genome is monopartite or multipartite

  • Track 5-1DNA Viruses
  • Track 5-2RNA Viruses
  • Track 5-3Reverse Transcribing Viruses
  • Track 5-4Bacterial Viruses
  • Track 5-5Subviral Agents

When the immune system encounters a virus it produces specific antibodies that bind to it and eliminate it. Antibodies present in the blood samples may be used to determine if the person has been exposed to the infection. The second line of defence is by cell mediated and humoral immune response by the production of B cells and T helper cells. The immune system retains the memory of the infection hence a second encounter of the same virus is prevented and eliminated

  • Track 6-1Cell Mediated Immunity
  • Track 6-2Humoral Immunity
  • Track 6-3RNA Interference
  • Track 6-4Immunopathology

New Viruses keep emerging each day and the term emerging virus is used to indicate the viruses that have been identified recently. Recent advances have occurred in the identification and understanding of new hantaviruses in the Americas, causing an acute respiratory disease. Although new viruses are discovered almost yearly (e.g., Australian bat lyssavirus), other "older" viruses (e.g., dengue) are re-emerging, infecting millions of people every year with significant mortality

  • Track 7-1Recently Discovered Viruses
  • Track 7-2Viruses in New Host Species
  • Track 7-3Viruses in New Areas
  • Track 7-4Re-emerging Viruses

The distribution of viruses and viral infections across the globe is referred as epidemiology. Most epidemiologic studies of infectious diseases have concentrated on the factors that influence acquisition and spread, because this knowledge is essential for developing methods of prevention and control. Historically, epidemiologic studies and the application of the knowledge gained from them have been central to the control of the great epidemic diseases, such as cholera, plague, smallpox, yellow fever, and typhus

  • Track 8-1Virus Surveillance
  • Track 8-2Factors Influencing the Spread of Viruses
  • Track 8-3Molecular Epidemiology
  • Track 8-4Zika virus

Viruses are also known to induce cancer in humans. The viruses that cause cancer are termed as oncovirus. Many of these viral oncogenes have been discovered and identified to cause cancer. The main viruses associated with human cancers are human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus, human T-lymphotropic virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus

  • Track 9-1DNA Oncoviruses
  • Track 9-2RNA Oncoviruses
  • Track 9-3Chemotherapy of Viral Infections
  • Track 9-4Oncolytic Virus to Treat Cancer

Neurovirology is an interdisciplinary field which represents a melding of clinical neuroscience, virology, immunology, and molecular biology. The main focus of the field is to study viruses capable of infecting the nervous system. In addition to this, the field studies the use of viruses to trace neuroanatomical pathways, for gene therapy, and to eliminate detrimental populations of neural cells.

  • Track 10-1Viral Entry into Nervous System
  • Track 10-2Tools Used for Diagnosing Neuroviral Infections
  • Track 10-3Use of Viruses in Gene Therapy
  • Track 10-4Future of the Field

Viral infections can also occur during pregnancies and it is the major cause for of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Infections can develop in the neonate transplacentally, perinatally (from vaginal secretions or blood), or postnatally (from breast milk or other sources). Traditionally, the only viral infections of concern during pregnancy were those caused by rubella virus, CMV, and herpes simplex virus (HSV). Other viruses now known to cause congenital infections include parvovirus B19 (B19V), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), West Nile virus, measles virus, enteroviruses, adenovirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Zika virus.

  • Track 11-1Structure of the Maternal Fetal Interference
  • Track 11-2Entry of Virus into Maternal Fetus
  • Track 11-3Pathogenetic Mechanism in Trophoblast during Viral Infections
  • Track 11-4Mechanism of Tissue Damage and Impact of Immune Response

Viruses not only infect human beings but also cause infections in other species. But the viruses that cause infections in vertebrates are different from those that affect other species. There are several factors that influence cross species transmission of infections. Similarity between species, for example, transfer between mammals, is believed to be facilitated by similar immunological defenses

  • Track 12-1Animal and Plant Viruses
  • Track 12-2Role of Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystem
  • Track 12-3Mechanism of Infection
  • Track 12-4Cross Species Transmission

The infections are diagnosed primarily after the appearance of the symptoms. Diagnostic virology has now entered the mainstream of medical practice. Multiple methods are used for the laboratory diagnosis of viral infections, including viral culture, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection, and serology.

  • Track 13-1Direct Examination Methods
  • Track 13-2Indirect Examination Methods
  • Track 13-3Serology
  • Track 13-4Classical Techniques
  • Track 13-5Newer Techniques

Vaccines are used to boost the immune system and prevent serious life-threatening diseases. Vaccines expose you to a very small, very safe amount of viruses or bacteria that have been weakened or killed. Your immune system then learns to recognize and attack the infection if you are exposed to it later in life. As a result, you will not become ill, or you may have a milder infection. This is a natural way to deal with infectious diseases.

  • Track 14-1Types of Vaccines
  • Track 14-2Recently Developed Vaccines
  • Track 14-3Mechanism of Vaccines against Viruses
  • Track 14-4Virotherapy

Antivirals have been developed to act against the viruses. Most antivirals are used for specific viral infections, while a broad-spectrum antiviral is effective against a wide range of viruses. Unlike most antibiotics, antiviral drugs do not destroy their target pathogen instead they inhibit their development. Antiviral drugs can be toxic to human cells. Also, viruses can develop resistance to antiviral drugs. Other antiviral drugs strengthen the immune response to the viral infection.

  • Track 15-1Interferon Drugs
  • Track 15-2Immune Globin
  • Track 15-3Antiretroviral Therapy
  • Track 15-4Limitations of Antivirals